Using only Filters will apply the given filters to each column leaving you with only the rows which satisfy all the filter conditions.
Using only Aggregations and Groupings can summarize the rows of your table. Use groupings to define which rows should be put in the same category and aggregations to define how to summarize the values within the same category. To get a table as a result we need to provide actions for every column.
For example consider a table with 3 columns, the name of your machine (thing), timestamp, and speed values. To get the average speed for each day, select grouping by day for the timestamp and average as an aggregation for the speed column. A warning in the "thing" column will tell you that it does not know what to do with this column and therefore can not summarize the table. If you want to include the "thing" in your grouping (the result will be average speed per day per thing) activate the grouping. Otherwise, deactivate the "show data" option or delete the column to get the average speed per day.
Using Filters and Aggregations/Groupings, in general, the filter is applied to the result of the column (the grouped or aggregated version of the column). The timestamp column makes the exception, here the filter is applied before the aggregation. If you want to filter your data before aggregating you can do so by disabling the "show data" option. These columns will not be included in the aggregation but will still be filtered accordingly.
Sorting, you can sort your table by the values of any column by clicking the symbol to the right of the column name. If the result is not as you expected you might need to deactivate the sorting of another column.
Altogether, you can transform your dataset in 3 steps. In the first step the timestamp filter and the filters applied to columns where "show data" was disabled. Secondly, the grouping and aggregations are applied. Finally, the remaining filters are applied to the results of the aggregation.